Electric vehicles have made some noteworthy progress

Electric vehicles have made some noteworthy progress in the commercial center, yet the number out and about contrasted with gas fueled vehicles is very little, just a couple of percent, best case scenario. Of course, organizations like Tesla, Nissan, and GM are making progress in the market, however it is still particularly in its earliest stages and has far to go. There are a few boundaries to such a fantasy of everybody driving an electric auto later on. We should address some of these. 

Here are five issues to consider and challenges for EVs (electric vehicles) on the off chance that they are to contend in the quantities of fuel produced autos every year: 

1). Street Tax Subsidies: In many states Departments of Motor Vehicles give enlistment rebates for EVs, which means other auto proprietors pay more, and a few states note they can’t deal with the decrease in incomes, so those tax reductions will soon vanish – again evacuating motivating forces to purchase an EV, when the EV advertise is beginning to take off. 

2). Power Costs to Consumers: Consumers are presently being charged more for power because of commands for elective vitality electrical matrix power. Amid dry season times hydro is lessened, and sunlight based homesteads are for the most part put in territories a long way from the real metro clients, which means more transmission lines are taking route into the betray costing billions of dollars + vitality is lost for each mile of transmission. The cost of sun powered is not modest, nor is the cost of wind-vitality. Albeit both are ending up substantially more effective, a number of the beforehand assembled sun based, wind ranches require a not too bad ROI and their expenses were higher than the expenses to manufacture new at this point. Expanded power costs change the esteem and expenses to buyers who charge their autos at home. 

3). Electric Car Range: Proponents say that it is enhancing significantly, TRUE. In any case, individuals have companions who have electric autos and have heard that their range is not tantamount to already guaranteed. That client supposition and discernment is a PR issue to overcome for the EV business and will set aside opportunity to turn around, in this manner harming deals for the time being. 

4). Absence of Charging Stations: Proponents take note of that Tesla is taking a shot at this issue of EV charging stations – and yes, so they are, beneficial for them, however not every person claims a Tesla or can manage the cost of one. As the value drops would tesla be able to at present offer this? Shouldn’t something be said about different purchasers of littler EVs, in light of the fact that on the off chance that we need full-selection individuals require charging stations so they can go on trips, not simply neighborhood driving. EVs constrain purchaser travel decisions, and since these vehicles cost more by and large than normal autos, individuals will keep purchasing what they are utilized to. EV industry should offer a few a huge number of autos a year prior to full selection is accomplished. 

5). Time to Charge: Proponents take note of that an opportunity to run after EVS is coming drastically, yes, however again the discernment isn’t there in the psyches of the customers yet. Furthermore, not every single electric auto are fabricated similarly nor do they have comparable battery advances enabling them to charge speedier. Being out of juice and waiting to drive your auto is the same as being “trapped” and customers despise the possibility of that. 

At this very moment, architects, researchers and industry experts are taking a shot at these things, yet there is far to go, that implies a considerable measure of upside yes, yet at the same time it’s a lengthy, difficult experience ahead. It would be ideal if you consider this.

Alternative Energy Uses In The Military

Most governments and corporations are looking at alternative energy strategies to produce power without the use of fossil fuels, all trying to curb their emissions of CO2. But, you’d be surprised that most militaries are also using alternative energy strategies, and it makes sense because a military moves on its fuel and food for its personnel. Anyone that studies military history knows just how critical this is. Not long ago, a technologist interviewed me and asked about alternative energy exploits for war planners. Let’s talk.
Daniel asks: “Will we see the use of alternative energies in the military industry?”
Yes, of course. A couple of reasons;
(1) The push for Climate Change is sending lots of research dollars into alternative energy, and the militaries of the world need energy, it takes a lot of energy to run a Navy, Army, or Air Force. Hint: Nuclear Powered Aircraft Carriers and Submarines. As these alternative energy innovations come into fruition and can compete with fossil fuels on cost, we will see much more of them, and;
(2) Consider that. like the radar signature on a stealth aircraft, having a smoke stack smoking up a storm on a large ship — like the Russian Aircraft Carrier Admiral Kuznetsov (old smokey – quite embarrassing) — it gives up its position pretty quickly.
Right now, we must realize that oil prices are low and fossil fuels have a lot of energy packed into those little molecules, and that’s hard to beat for powerful afterburners. If oil prices go back up, that will be reason number 3.
As far as biofuels go, we are a ways off, and the cost is way too high to justify, but who knows in the future, maybe some brilliant genius will take home a Nobel Prize for figuring it out, that would be a game-changer. When it comes to solar, well, the prices have really come down and the efficiency has really gone up. That along with battery performance — improving duration, lowering weight, faster re-charging, and lower overall costs due to scaled up production — we can be assured more use of solar power in militaries across the planet, but only when it makes sense and if it works – remember when it comes to the military it’s all about operational readiness, and a foot soldier who has dead batteries, could end up dead.
Hydrogen Fueled military equipment makes a lot of sense, and yes there are technological challenges there too, but those will get worked out in private industry because there are so many potential applications from transportation to home use and beyond.
Still, at the end of the day militaries need what works, and they need it now, if they want to win, political correctness seems quite trivial when you are fighting a war with life and death in the balance, so reality takes front seat. If alternative energies can do it cheaper, more efficient and require less logistics for a moving army, you can bet they will be part of the mix of technologies, count on it.

My Introduction to Permaculture

My first prologue to Permaculture occurred before I even knew there was such a framework. As a young person with a distinct fascination in cultivation, watching neighbors, loved ones expelling trees from their property and stacking them onto (regularly) a few trailer loads and taking them to the tip. At that point inside days seeing a truck convey a heap of bark or woodchips to revive old or make new beds in the crisply trimmed scene. Seeing these conveyance trucks my contemplations backpedaled to the heaps of biomass that went to the tip just days prior that could have effectively been changed over to woodchips. 

Presently, with a comprehension of Permaculture and its morals I perceived what I was seeing to be the 3 morals (Earth mind, People Care and Return of Surplus/Fair Share) and in addition a few standards including – “Deliver no waste”, “Catch and Store Energy”, “Get a Yield”, “Utilize and Value Renewable Resources and Services”, “Innovatively utilize and Respond to Change”. 

Maintainability through Permanent Landscapes and Food timberlands is an outline procedure that duplicates the cooperation and connections found in nature. A frameworks way to deal with maintainability that can be used for all parts of human survival from farming to biological working, from using suitable innovation to financial matters, from instruction to vitality creation. 

Permaculture takes the concentration off us being customers and puts the accentuation on us being makers. Its a framework that can be connected to a property as little as an overhang cultivate through normal quarter section of land urban home destinations to properties that are actually several sections of land. 

In spite of well known conclusion among the individuals who fiddle with Permaculture it is not tied in with Gardening – however cultivating shapes an expansive piece of a gainful framework, it is not about Solar Panels and vitality – however creating, putting away and sparing vitality is a piece of the framework, It is not tied in with Catching, putting away and utilizing water all the more effectively – however the brilliant utilize, stockpiling and stream of water shapes some portion of the framework. Or maybe it is a total frameworks way to deal with reasonable considering. 

Despite the fact that my first prologue to Permaculture depended on a comparable outlook without knowing there was such a plan framework, I soon began to peruse about individuals like Bill Mollison – the Tasmanian who began the outline framework, David Holmgren who co-reated the framework with Bill and different understudies of these originators – Geoff Lawton, Rosemary Morrow, et al. 

It was a light globe minute finding how every one of these individuals were contemplating similar techniques, a similar rationale of manageability that I was. I wasn’t going frantic all things considered. My musings were at that point being tried by a gathering of magnificent individuals – Permaculture was not just conceived – It was discreetly practically speaking appropriate far and wide. 

Eric J. Smith is a qualified Horticulturalist and Permaculturalist. Eric expounds on his enthusiasm for some ranges of Environmental concern and brings into center Changing Economic standards. Eric has an energy for Organic Gardening and Permanent palatable scenes with an accentuation on the maintainable utilization of natural frameworks.

Reasons Why The Global Environmental Challenges Call for International Collaboration Among Scholars

The environment is the haven for human life. Its wanton degradation in this age calls for the most urgent attention by scholars from all fields. Many environmentalists and enthusiasts for the conservation of biodiversity like myself believe that designing effective strategies to arrest this canker of deleterious attitudes and activities of people requires a pluralistic and multidisciplinary approach.
Relying solidly on a truncated approach to only science and technology for solutions to the global environmental menace cannot yield the most benefits. This is largely due to the multi-faceted nature of the global environmental challenges which call for a good collaboration between the various academic disciplines.
To illustrate, the world needs economic and mathematical insights from economists and mathematicians on how to effectively manage the biodiversity resources, setting the right measure between usage and conservation (sustainability). The scientists, engineers, and technocrats must come out with new technologies such as biomimetics and other biotechnological approaches to sustain the endangered species in our environment. Artists must beef up the sensitization campaigns through their well-designed communication design tools. Anthropologists and culturists and religionists must strategize on how to change the weak and/or bad behavioral attitudes of people by picking powerful lessons from their cultures (norms, religious beliefs, values, ethics, by-laws) to appealing to their morals and influence them to engage in environmental friendly activities, protecting nature which humans serve as trustees or stewards. The historians must help us trace what went wrong in nibbing the global environmental situation in the mud. This would reliably inform us what went wrong and how we can change the wrong decisions humans made in the past, so that the past would not continue to haunt us. The agriculturists must strategize and inform us on improved agricultural practices that would not worsen the global environmental situation, but rather nourish the soil, save habitats and improve the growth of the plant species in the environment. The foresters, conservationists and wildlife specialists must show us practically the measures to mitigate the abuse of the biodiversity in the environment. The law experts must strategize how to set stringent laws which, when implemented, would be strong enough to prevent culprits of environmental malfeasance to change their attitude while serving as a powerful deterrent for others not to tread their foul steps.
The law enforcers, military professionals, and police personnel must ensure that the environmental laws, rules, and regulations are working to beef up the implementation processes of the environmental policies, strategies, and conventions that are promulgated.
The inputs of each field of human endeavor, some of which are not mentioned here, but would play equally significant roles to arrest the global environmental challenges collectively can yield the most beneficial results to save the environment, our home and the hope of survival for the human generations. Arguably, the global environmental condition calls for international collaboration between scholars from diverse fields of study if there would be any hope of furnishing a powerful weapon to rid of the sad condition of the global environment.

The Hot Climate

The impact of Latitude on atmosphere of a place is of prime significance. The more we move towards the posts, the cooler it gets. 

As indicated by Latitude three are essentially three kind of Climates: 

The Hot Climate 

This atmosphere is discovered 23.5 degrees north and south of Equator. The climate stays hot consistently and the coolest month is more than 64 F. The summers are outstandingly hot and the greater part of the world’s real forsakes are available in this climatic zone. The precipitation is subject to the kind of the breeze winning at one point of time. For example the tropical zones which are affected by storm, get an obvious measure of rain while alternate zones where rainstorm does not reach, go totally dry. 

The Cool Climate 

These are by and large found at 40 – 60 degrees North and South of equator. The most blazing month does not surpass 70 F and the coolest month records a temperature of around 40 F. This area incorporates the vast majority of Europe, Central Asia, Northern and Central China, The Northern and Central United States and the South of Australia. 

The precipitation is direct and add up to yearly precipitation is by and large 20 crawls to 40 inches. The territory influenced by the North Atlantic float are wetter than different zones. Likewise the North East United states is substantially wetter than different ranges of the zone. A few regions are blessed to the point that they get adequate precipitation both in summer and winter like New South Wales of Australia of which the city of Sydney is the run of the mill illustration. 

The chilly atmosphere 

This atmosphere is found past 60 degrees north and south of equator. The most blazing month does not surpass 50 F and the coldest month can be a few degrees beneath zero. The North of Canada and Russia are the primary regions under this zone. The more northern ranges remain snow bound consistently. 

The precipitation relies on the area however for the most part is under 10 inches. The exceptionally cool atmosphere is not helpful for the plant development and huge zones in this zone are only prairie in summer and a sheet of snow in winter. The serious icy breeze blowing more often than not build the breeze chill factor making the climate unendurable. 

So, Latitude decides, to a more prominent degree, the atmosphere not out of the ordinary at a specific place and is of prime significance for some climate examines.


Walking makes us healthy. It maintains and improve our health. Walking can be done any time in a day and it requires less or no equipment. A study conducted in 2007 about inactive women depicts that even 75 minutes walk per week makes the person fit as compared to non exercising groups. Walking is a great form of physical activity for the people who are overweight, elder and who have not walked for long time. 


The benefits gained from walking are as follows:

  • increased cardiovascular and pulmonary fitness
  • strong bones, improve balance
  • increase muscles strength
  • reduce body fat
  • improved management of conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, high muscular pain
  • walking makes you happy
  • walking boosts vitamin D
  • It prevents dementia
  • It tones up legs, bums and tums
  • It gives us energy
Different studies show that regular exercise lowers the risks to certain cancers  such as breast and colon cancers.


A pedometer is used to measure that how much steps a person walks. A person should wear it while walking. It motivates the people to do more walk and do better than before. 


Walking for 30 minutes is beneficial for health. Moderate walking poses the little risks to health but patients must consult with doctor before initiating any new program of health exercise. It is difficult to walk for continuous 30 minutes. but to make it a habit you can start with dividing them into three sessions each of 10 minutes in day. Gradually it becomes a habit. In case for the purpose to lose the weight exercise  must be done for more than 30 minutes in a day but here also the habit is built gradually by starting the walk for less time than increasing the time.

To build the walking routine some suggestions are as follows:
  • Walk to shops rather than by drive
  • Walk the dog
  • Get off local transport and walk to home or office 
  • Take the stairs instead of lift


The water that is percolated in the ground is known as groundwater. 

It is brought on the surface for use. The following points need to be taken into account regarding underground sources:


The surface of each aquifers is composed of alternate pervious and impervious layers. Pervious strata are those strata through which water can easily pass while impervious strata are those through which water cannot pass. 

The pervious layers are named as aquifers or water holding strata. Aquifers have sand or gravel layer that provides the good quality water. The aquifers that are made of limestone layer gives good quantity of water supply and cracks or fissures are present there.


The movement of underground water is through gravity and attraction of molecules of surface tension.


The porosity is defined as the ratio of volume of pores or openings of material to the volume of total volume of material. Porosity is measured in percentage. 

P= V1/V2×100

P= Porosity of soil
V1=  Volume of openings of material
V2= Total Volume of  material

Name of Rock or Soil                                          Porosity in %

Clay                                                                         44-47          
Chalk                                                                      14-15          
Limestone                                                              0.5-17          
Sand and Gravel                                                    35-40          
Sandstone                                                                 4-30          
Compacted Sand and Gravel                               25-30          
Top Soils                                                                 37-65          


The process of natural filtration occurs when rainfall occurs and rain water percolates through the ground.That’s why underground water is free from impurities.Some quantity of bacteria are also present in water. that protect the water from contamination. The groundwater contains different salts depending upon the type of strata and length of underground water flow. The minerals present in underground water are manganese, magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium and iron. 

Rocky strata give more or less pure water.
water with clayey soil have high turbidity.
Aquifers made of limestone provides long passage of underground water.

The upper top soil at ground level is pervious and the rain water is percolated through this pervious layer and gathered here.This upper surface of free water is called as Water table of groundwater table.

Water table level changes. It increases in the wet season and falls down in dry season. 



Surface water resources includes three types of sources

1) Lakes and Streams
2) Rivers
3) Storage Reservoirs


A natural lake is a large water body in the land. A lake is used to supply water to its nearest areas. The runoff of water that goes in the lake should be measured correctly and it should be equal to the demand of that area people. Streams are made by the surface. Streams have plenty of water in rainy season but the flow of water in dry season is quite low and it may cause the streams dry. 

The catchment area of both lakes and streams is low. So, the water supply is also low in these water bodies. Therefore, they cannot be used as water supply schemes for large cities. They can only be used for nearby areas and small towns. 

Water Quality

The water of lakes and streams is free from impurities. This water can be utilized safely for drinking water purpose. 


Rivers proves as the large source of water supply schemes for Rivers are classified into two categories. Some rivers are perennial that flows throughout the seasons because these are snow fed rivers. Other rivers are Non Perennial rivers that became dry in hot seasons and floods face the rivers in monsoon seasons. It is necessary to utilize the flood water by storing the water in winter through constructing dams and utilize this water in summer. 

The river water can be used for the following purposes:

  • source of water supply for a town
  • used for navigation
  • source of water supply for irrigation
  • used for purification of waste
  • source of recreation activities such as bathing, boating and fishing etc.
Quality of Water

The quality of river water is not consistent. It has silt and suspended impurities. When sewage water (partially or completely treated) is entered into river, then high contamination in rivers is observed. The river water should be analyzed in the perspective of diseases, bacteria and high impurities. River water should be effectively treated before its use as drinking water. Quality of water changes depends upon many parameters such as catchment area, sewage discharges, climate conditions and season of year. The quality of river water is found good at its head and it turns to deteriorating by reaching at its coarse areas. 

Reasons why River Pollution Undesirable

  • Contamination of water leads to increase in pressure on treatment units
  • Effects on fishes life
  • Hindrance of recreational use
  • Hindrance in navigation
  • Irritation by odor and appearance of river water

An artificial lake made by the construction of dam across a valley is known as storage reservoir. It has three parts:

1) A dam to store water
2) spillway to promote excessive flow of water
3) Gate Chamber having valves to regulate the water flow

These reservoirs present a source of water for large cities. The reservoir water can be used for irrigation and power generation. 

Site Selection for Reservoir

Following points should be considered while selection of a site:
  • land area to be submerged by reservoir construction
  • availability of construction materials
  • elevation of reservoir level
  • availability of skilled labor
  • water quality in reservoir
  • water availability
  • properties of catchment area
  • density of population over catchment area
  • good foundation bed for dams


Virtual Water is the water embodied in a product not in real sense but in virtual sense.

The water required to produce a product is known as virtual water.

It is also known as embedded water or exogenous water. Exogenous water is the water that the countries import in virtual sense and it is exogenous to the importing countries.

In quantitative term one approach defined the virtual water content as volume of water that is used in actual to produce the product. It depends on production conditions such as time and place of production and water use efficiency. e.g. for producing 1 kg of grain in arid environment requires two to three times more water than growing the same grain in humid country.
In second approach virtual water is defined with the perspective of user. It is defined as amount of water that would have been required to produce a product at the location where it is produced. 

  • In water scarce conditions import of virtual water in water deficient country reduce the pressure on water resources.
  • Virtual water can be seen as alternative source of water.
  • Virtual water can be used as an instrument to solve the geopolitical problems and water wars. 
  • By exporting virtual water products the nations get economic benefits
  • Virtual water trade from high water productive nations to low water productive nations implies real water savings
  • Water Footprint is making a connection between consumption pattern and impacts on water.

  • Virtual water content determination is not an easy task. It depends on many factors such as:
  • The place and period
  • The point of measurement (e.g. either water use is measured at water withdrawal point or at field level).
  • The production method and efficiency of water use.
  • The method of attributing water inputs to intermediate products to virtual water content of final products.



Execution of waste analysis is the third step in waste characterization.


  • The Collection team should collect the waste either by emptying the waste containers or by exchanging them with empty ones on regular intervals without informing the property holder who produce this waste to avoid his influence in changing the composition of waste.
  • Each sample should be tagged with a specific reference identification code so that it could be used in wet conditions.
  • The following data must be recorded while collecting waste samples

1)  Sample Address 

2)  Date of Collection
3)  Specific Identification Reference Code
4)  Number and type of waste containers collected
5)  Estimation by seeing the percentage filling level of containers
6)  Estimation of percentage filling level of  other containers at one address for finding the waste amount
  • Number of persons responsible for waste production and collection interval information are useful to give the indication of per capita waste statistics and per household waste statistics.
  • Every waste sample collected must not to be mixed with other waste sample

Each sampling unit is weighed and weight is noted. The sorting of each sampling unit is done separately. The sampling unit is sorted according to a sorting catalog. The catalog will be described in later posts. The catalog has 13 primary waste categories and 35 secondary categories.

Sorting Procedure
  • A waste analysis record sheet (paper copy) is prepared for each sampling unit.
  • The unique code for waste is noted for each sample against waste analysis record.
  • The percentage filling ratio of waste containers is recorded.
  • The sampling unit is weighed with an accuracy of +/- 0.1 kg is recorded.
  • The sorting units can be separated into two fractions above 40 mm and below 40 mm waste category through screens or by screen table. This reduces the effort of sorting.
  • The above 40 mm fraction is sorted into 12 waste primary categories.
  • The below 40 mm fraction is further sorted into two fractions above 10 mm and below 10 mm through 10 mm mesh screen.
  • The below 10 mm waste weight is recorded and considers as “Fines” category.
  • The 10-40 mm waste is weighed too.
The sorting rate recommended is 6 man-hours (sorting team

members) per 100 kg of waste.


The evaluation of waste analysis depends upon weight results taken while sorting procedures from all sampling units.

The basic weight results should be transferred from record sheet to excel sheet that will easily calculate the waste composition and required statistical data.

Sample Analysis

Physical analysis is useful in determining the composition o municipal solid waste. Sorting is done for easy handling and management of waste. Water samples are sent to Laboratories for chemical analysis.


It includes the conclusion from obtained sample results from population.

Presentation of Results

The results presented are:
  • Raw Data
  • Statistical Calculations
  • Evaluation of single results of strata
  • Extrapolation of overall results and waste quantities
  • Graphical representation of results